Households with several boys foster girls to help with the chores. See the Visa Bulletin and Green Card pages. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, men have stronger ownership rights over land than women do. The strongest son preferences are observed in countries with ratios exceeding 120: Mauritania, Pakistan, Senegal, Guinea, Nepal, Azer- baijan, Jordan, Mali, Armenia, Niger, India, and Chad. By Annamaria Milazzo. But not in Africa. Otherwise, countries are classified as «no preference». ... a mission to create more awareness about superstition in Africa with particular preference to Nigeria, and headed to … Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. 17 (1) June, 2013 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (AESON) 2012 – 2014 National Officers President: Mal. Sex-selective abortion is the abortion of a preborn child simply because the child’s sex was not what the parents wanted. Permanent resident (Green Card holder) petitioning for your child, son, or daughter: You file Form I-130. Audio message says Nigeria’s Boko Haram behind abduction of hundreds of schoolboys in northwestern state of Katsina. It also changes a woman’s married life. The differences are small but consistent: having a daughter first changes child-bearing choices later. That’s when things took a turn. men have stronger ownership rights over land than women do, Evidence mounts that Eritrean forces are in Ethiopia, Jail for a Saudi woman who said women should drive, After 34 years, Uganda’s president has no intention of retiring. * “Son preference, fertility and family structure”. In fact, women may own family land too, but their ownership rights are weaker than men's. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. Son preference—widely documented in countries such as India, China, and Korea—is deeply rooted in social, economic, and cultural factors (Pande and Astone 2007). son preference, but women’s education and media exposure do make a difference. But in Nigeria, as in most countries, female headship is associated with poverty. In fact, almost everything to do with having a daughter first is bad for women. It shows that son preference is prevalent and that its deleterious eects are re ected not in missing young or unborn girl children but … preferences: son preference prevails in patrilineal ethnic groups only. The Senate of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 15th of By contrast, at its worst, China had 120 boys for every 100 girls. Design, setting and participants Data on 79 953 children aged 6–23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003–2013. Studies in . And, if their first three children are daughters, they are very likely to have a fourth very quickly (within 15 months). Parents have no need of extra measures to ensure boys are born. This phenomenon is evident in societies where male children are accorded special recognition and or higher The issue of son preference is another pernicious violence against women for which the need to protect the girl-child is necessary and desirable in most societies of the world. The immense value placed on male children around the world, especially among patriarchal cultures in developing countries like Nigeria, has resulted in unfavorable disposition towards the continuous birth and welfare of females. A discussion about how son preference has … This paper considers a country in Sub-Saharan Africa and finds that parental gender preferences do affect fertility behavior and shape traditional social institutions with negative effects on adult women's health and well-being. Amid worries about kidnapped girls, Nigeria’s traditions are unkind, too. This paper revisits the issue of son preference in Sub-Saharan Africa by examining patterns of fertility behavior and family structure in Nigeria. In Nigeria, the preference for sons is very prevalent and exists in several cultures as it dates back to pre- … It therefore examined son preference with particular emphasis on Igbo custom in Nigeria and discovered its deep rooted nature in the psyche of the people as well as the fact that it is a violation of the human rights of women and suggested measures to curb same. All rights reserved. Katsina state governor says 344 boys abducted from their school in northwestern Nigeria last Friday have been freed. And in Nigeria, a family without a male child is always unhappy. Correction: This article originally stated that in Nigeria only men may own family land. In Nigeria traditional practices have ensured that men retain material, social and moral dominance over women that they are simply unwilling to voluntarily relinquish. How my journey to Nigeria started. Son preference in a rural vil lage in North Vietnam. The need for sons changes fertility patterns. Exhausted and dishevelled, several hundred Nigerian schoolboys seized in … Almost a fifth of families in Nigeria send a child away to be brought up in another household, often that of a cousin or distant family member. iii Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol. ABSTRACT: Son preference is a global phenomenon that is influenced by personal, conjugal, socioeconomic and cultural factors. These results can partly explain excess female mortality among adult women in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank. According to the latest demographic and health survey (financed by the American government), women whose first child is a daughter are likely to have more children than those whose first child is a son. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The issue of son preference is another pernicious violence against women for which the need to protect the girl-child is necessary and desirable in most societies of the world. Son Preference and Culture I measure the sex preferences of immigrant women in the United Kingdom by estimating the effect of family composition on birth hazard rates. Men also seem more willing to abandon or divorce wives who produce a daughter. Working Paper 6869. This has been corrected. Male-child preference has remained one of the most lasting cultural values among the Igbo of South eastern Nigeria. Women are in In Nigeria, the preference for sons is very prevalent and exists in several cultures as it dates back to pre- historic times and it is tied to inheritance, unfortunately it has not succumbed to societal changes but has remained sacrosanct … Among women aged 30 to 49, those with first-born girls are more likely to be divorced, have a non-resident husband or be the head of a household. Nigeria suffers from sexual bias – parent’s preference for a boy child has resulted in high fertility rates, increased polygamy, higher rates of suicide, high levels of depression, and other mental health conditions. They are less likely to use contraceptives. The preference for sons is also supported by child fostering patterns in which daughters are substitutes for foster girls, while the same does not hold for sons and foster boys. In every tribe in africa male children are very important in the family. In Nigerian generally and in Igbanke in particular the issue of a male child preference may not be as blatant as what obtains in Asia, but it exists nonetheless. Objective: To ascertain the child gender preferences in an urban and rural community in Enugu State.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling method was employed to select 245 urban and 243 rural women from households in Enugu State, Eastern Nigeria. To learn more, view our, Socio-cultural Factors and Male-Child Preference among Couples in Ilorin-West Local Government Area of Kwara-State, Nigeria, Male Preference and Marital Stability in Cross River State, South South Nigeria, DEMAND FOR CHILDREN AND FERTILITY TRANSITION IN GUMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, Escalation of Sex Ratio in Kathmandu Valley.doc, THE EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON FERTILITY BEHAVIOUR IN GUMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE. However, our data show … Nigeria’s sex ratio at birth is the natural one: 106 boys are born for every 100 girls (boys are more vulnerable to infant diseases, so this ratio ensures that equal numbers of the sexes reach puberty). To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. In countries where culturally-rooted son preference is common, sex-selective abortion is used as a means to attain a couple’s desired number of sons and desired family composition. Yusuf Y. Mahmood However, before heading to Europe, Johnny needed to take a side trip to Nigeria for a job interview. This gives everyone an economic need for sons, including women, who face a grim widowhood without one. Family Planning, 33 (4) 321-334. One might expect that women living in economically more developed areas and those from wealthier families would be less likely to exhibit son preference. Boko Haram claims kidnapping of hundreds of Nigerian students. Son preference in Nigeria: The human rights implications. SEX-SELECTIVE abortions are used round the world to discriminate in favour of boys. The woman is regarded as chattel (property) and this dominate its customary laws on marriage, inheritance, succession and … This article appeared in the Middle East & Africa section of the print edition under the headline "Bring back the girls", Sign up to our free daily newsletter, The Economist today, Published since September 1843 to take part in “a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, and an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress.”. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain child gender preferences in an urban and a rural area.Results: Significant son preference … The preference for sons is so profound that it even affects a practice which may seem to have little to do with it: fostering. Heading a household may sound like a good thing. The sense that nieces may be substitute daughters but nephews cannot be substitute sons shows how entrenched son-preference is. In this study, the consequences of son preference and its implication on the status of girls and mothers were explored. A theoretical model suggests that costs (eg, dowries) are unlikely to explain the U.S. citizen petitioning for your son or daughter (married and/or 21 or over) You file Form I-130. PHOTO: Ogun State Command Some husbands, it turns out, take another wife if their first child is a girl (polygamy is legal in northern Nigeria and recognised by customary law elsewhere). Maria received a desperate call from Johnny. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. The preference for sons is so profound that it even affects a practice which may seem to have little to do with it: fostering. Moreover, in Nigeria, there are plenty of both: the fertility rate is 6.0, meaning the average woman can expect to have six children, or three sons. 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