Q&A: Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Diagnosis and Treatment. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Ethylene Glycol – What Every Pet Owner Should Know. When an unsuspecting pet first licks up the antifreeze — which, sadly, many do — the ethylene glycol (EG) can cause early signs such as: The liver quickly breaks down ethylene glycol into toxic products that can lead to kidney failure and death. Ethylene glycol (E/G) is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. The most used though is E Ethylene glycol which is mostly at a 95 to 97 percent concentration and which is an extremely dangerous toxin. Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. However, there are a number of tests that together may indicate antifreeze poisoning if performed in a timely manner. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Ethylene glycol poisoning is common because antifreeze is widely used, it has a sweet taste and small lethal dose (only 3 to 4 teaspoons in dogs, 1 to 2 teaspoons in cats), and it … Last update: Oct 2, 2020 1 answer. Fomepizole has been effectively used in dogs with ethylene glycol toxicity (Connally and others 1996) but it is currently unavailable as a licensed veterinary product in … Both dogs and cats may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol may be used as an antifreeze and can be found in high concentrations in RV, marine, and “pet safe” antifreeze products. ; Richards L, Ong H M, Davis M, Hodge P (2011) Ethylene glycol toxicity in a cat.Control & Therapy Series 263, 44-46.; Tart K M, Powell L L (2011) 4-methylpyrazole as a treatment in naturally occurring ethylene glycol intoxication in cats.J Vet Emerg Crit Care 21 (3), 268-272 PubMed. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. Toxicity and death may occur after drinking even a small amount. Identifying ethylene glycol poisoning without the owner seeing or suspecting their dog encountering antifreeze is challenging - the symptoms may apply to a wide variety of conditions, and the poison acts quickly. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. The term “toxic alcohols” is a collective term that includes methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol. Ethylene Glycol. ANSWERS. therapy. This drug is administered intravenously multiple times over 24- 36 hours to prevent the development of kidney failure. Best Answer. Most antifreezes contain ethylene glycol, a chemical compound that causes significant, often fatal, problems for both cats and dogs. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Depending on the way polyethylene glycol is manufactured, PEG can contain contaminants like ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane. How is ethanol used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? The detailed report by Swor et al. The treatment of choice for dogs is a drug called Fomepizole (or 4 - methylpyrazole or 4- MP). Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with significant morbidity and mor … It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. Ethylene glycol can also be found, in lower concentrations, in some windshield de-icing agents, hydraulic brake fluid, motor oils, solvents, paints, film processing solutions, wood stains, inks, printer cartridges, etc. Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. Pathogenesis Etiology. Later symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, headache, and seizures. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. ), a negative test does not rule out ethylene glycol toxicity. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. Antifreeze products will mostly contain Ethylene glycol, Propylene glycol or Methanol as the active ingredient. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the Catachem test kit (Catachem Inc., Oxford, Connecticut) could precisely and accurately detect the presence of EG added to serum and plasma from 6 dogs and 4 cats. Ethylene glycol tests often are not beneficial after 12 hours post-ingestion. Conclusion Further Reading Publications Refereed papers. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. (undiluted = 95% ethylene glycol, working solution in car radiator is 50%). When dogs and cats are exposed to antifreeze, it is essential that they immediately receive treatment. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Poisoning from drained radiator water. Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource. The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs of ethylene glycol poisoning occur in stages. Ethylene glycol tastes sweet, which is why some animals are attracted to it. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity Extended Version Prognosis: Good: Dogs treated within 5 hours, cats within 3 hours Guarded to poor: Very large doses presenting with seizures, nystagmus Prevention: Do not keep animals in the garage Lock antifreeze containers away from chewing dogs Long term outcomes may include kidney failure and brain damage. Hewlett TP(1), Jacobsen D, Collins TD, McMartin KE. Ethylene glycol poisoning is a potentially fatal condition that results from the ingestion of substances containing ethylene glycol, an organic compound commonly seen in antifreeze. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a clear, odorless compound that, because of its palatability, is occasionally ingested by both dogs and cats, with severe and potentially fatal consequences. Antifreeze, which often contains ethylene glycol (EG), can be extremely dangerous to dogs and cats. Electrocution Stage 1: This occurs within 30 minutes to 12 hours and looks similar to alcohol poisoning. There are two major treatments for ethylene glycol toxicity. 3. Antifreeze poisoning occurs when pets drink antifreeze containing ethylene glycol. Author information: (1)Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130-3932. Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. ... Once the dog has ingested this ethylene glycol it becomes toxic in their bodies. Ethylene glycol is subsequently converted into more toxic metabolites, Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. polycyclic aromatic compounds, lead, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic. Early symptoms include intoxication, vomiting and abdominal pain. 30 min after ingestion. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. If the dog exhibits any of these symptoms have the vet check the animal. Why can't it be used in cats? In contrast to the other two types of antifreeze, it only takes a small amount of ethylene glycol to poison your dog, and even less to poison your cat – just two tablespoons for a ten-pound dog and one teaspoon for a cat. Another issue that polyethylene glycol has is contamination. Thus antifreeze toxicity in dogs should be taken very seriously and one should get medical intervention as quickly as possible. It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. How is 4-methylpyrazole used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? Your vet will confirm ethylene glycol toxicity by taking a sample of your dog’s urine and looking for the presence of crystals under a microscope. Even a small amount of antifreeze can be fatal to dogs and cats. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. Malicious poisoning. Ethylene glycol toxicity Ethylene glycol toxicity Frape, D. L. 2002-10-01 00:00:00 Ethylene glycol toxicity D. L. FRAPE The Priory, Churchyard, Mildenhall, Suffolk IP28 7EE, UK. There is a very small range of margin of toxicity in the case of ethylene glycol ingestion, in other words, a tiny dosage of this organic compound can result in fatal toxicity. Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats SHORT COMMUNICATION Before being metabolized, much like the excessive consumption of alcohol in human patients, EG causes irritation of the gastric mucosa, along with central nervous system depression. All animals are susceptible to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity, but it is most common in dogs and cats. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. above is a valuable contribution, owing particularly to an absence of any previous equine evidence of ethylene glycol toxicity reported in the scientific literature. Ethylene glycols peak at 1-4 hours post-ingestion and then begin to fall. Toxicity to pets. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. Ethylene glycol poisoning is poisoning caused by drinking ethylene glycol. Follow the diagnostic tree for Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. Antifreeze consumed as concentrated solution. Antifreeze Toxicity in Dogs. Ethylene glycol and glycolate kinetics in rats and dogs. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. (2) So, while a positive ethylene glycol test has a good chance of suggesting toxicity (although false positives can occur! Antifreeze poisoning is a medical emergency, and early treatment is crucial. I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. 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